The NAACP called the renomination of Judge Charles Pickering to the Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals an insult to black people in Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas.
State president Eugene Bryant said, when Pickering was a law student in 1959, he wrote an article about how Mississippi should change its laws to make interracial marriage a crime.
He also claimed Pickering has fought voting rights and criticized the creation of majority-black voting districts.
Pickering supporters say the judge has worked toward racial reconciliation in his hometown of Laurel and other places.
During a news conference Wednesday at the Capitol, Bryant said that Pickering's record shouldn't be overlooked.
President Bush nominated Pickering to the appellate court last year, and the nomination was defeated in the then Democrat-controlled Senate Judiciary Committee.
After Republicans regained a majority in the Senate, Bush resubmitted Pickering's name.