Smallpox Vaccines Here

Pam T. Varkuna will be among the first people in Meridian to get the smallpox vaccine. As director of nursing at Riley Hospital, she says
she couldn't ask others to take it without first doing it herself.

Varkuna is not alone. Riley officials say they think they'll have enough people who will be willing to take the vaccine when the time comes.

Every hospital in Meridian expects to participate when and if a mass but voluntary vaccination begins soon.

The plan now is to have a group of 20 health department workers from this district vaccinated first. That could happen as soon as next week.

Then those workers will vaccinate first response health care workers at local hospitals.

To be eligible, a person must have already been vaccinated and not have any of several risk factors involved in taking it.

Dr. Margaret Morrison of the Mississippi Department of Health says she doesn't know just how many people locally will be vaccinated, but she says it probably won't be as many as they originally thought.

Health officials say they hope the entire vaccination process won't last more than a couple of months.

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Smallpox

  • The name smallpox is derived from the Latin word "spotted" and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the body of an infected person.

Forms of Smallpox

  • Two forms of smallpox, variola major and variola minor.

  • Variola Major: The sever and most common form of small pox, with a more extensive rash and higher fever. Four types of variola major smallpox:
    • Ordinary: The most frequent type, accounting for 90 percent of the cases.
    • Modified: Mild and occurring in previously vaccinated persons.
    • Flat: Very fatal. Very hard to recover from this form of smallpox.
    • Hemorrhagic: Very rare and most serious. Extremely fatal form of smallpox.

  • Variola Minor: A less common presentation of smallpox, and a much less sever disease, with death rates historically of one percent or less.

Where Smallpox Originates From

  • Smallpox is caused by the variola virus that emerged in human population thousands of years ago.

  • Except for laboratory stockpiles, the variola virus has been eliminated.

Transmission

  • Direct and prolonged face-to-face contact is required to spread smallpox.

  • Can be spread through direct contact with infected bodily fluids or contaminated objects such as bedding or clothing.

  • Rarely, smallpox has been spread by virus carried in the air in enclosed settings such as buildings, buses and trains.

  • Humans are the only natural hosts of variola. Smallpox is not known to be transmitted by insects or animals.

Stages of Smallpox Disease

  • Incubation Period (7-17 days, not contagious) -- Exposure to the virus is followed by an incubation period, which people do not have any symptoms and may feel fine.

  • Initial Symptoms (2-4 days, sometimes contagious) -- The first symptoms of smallpox include fever, malaise, head and body aches, and sometimes vomiting. The fever is usually high, in the range of 101° F - 104° F.

  • Early Rash (4 days, most contagious) -- A rash emerges first as small red spots on the tongue and in the mouth. Usually the rash spreads to all parts of the body within 24 hours. As the rash appears, the fever usually falls and the person may start feeling better. However, by the fourth day, the bumps fill with a thick fluid, the fever will raise again and will last until scabs begin to form on the bumps.

  • Pustular Rash (5 days, contagious) -- The bumps become pustules, sharply raised, usually round and firm to the touch as if there is a small round object under the skin.

  • Pustules and Scabs (5 days, contagious) -- The pustules begin to form a crust and then scab. By the end of the second week after the rash appears, most of the sores have scabbed over.

  • Resolving Scabs (6 days, contagious) -- The scabs begin to fall off, leaving marks on the skin that eventually become pitted scars. Most scabs will have fallen off three weeks after the rash appears.

  • Scabs Resolved (not contagious) -- Scabs have fallen off. Person is no longer contagious.

Source: www.bt.cdc.gov (Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response's Web site) contributed to this report.


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